Biotic and Abiotic as One

An ecosystem comprises biotic (living) and abiotic (dead) parts (Odum, 1971). They both form the ecosystem. The biotic part can be considered an expression based on the constraints of the abiotic part. The last one influences the first.

Considering the ecosystem approach for the city implies a permanent focus on balancing biotic and abiotic factors. Knowing the qualities and constraints in the ecosystem (city or forest) diagnosis is crucial for understanding and governance decisions to be made.


Odum, E. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology (Third Edition). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.