Consists of a group of eco-units with all growth phases present. An eco-unit related to the city can be defined as a ‘unit which started its development at the same moment and on the same surface” (After Oldeman, 1983)
The city in our approach is considered as an ecosystem consisting of a mosaic of units, like districts and neighbourhoods with organisations or groups as its living components.
Oldeman, R. (1983) The design of ecologically sound agroforests. In Huxley, P. (ed) Plant research and agroforestry, Chapter 14, ICRAF, Nairobi.