Factors make the conditions for the components of the ecosystem.They can be biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living).

A biotic factor ‘is the influence on an ecosystem arising from the activities of organisms, including predator-prey relationships, competition and disease’ (Wilson, 2014).

An abiotic factor is ’the influence on an ecosystem arising from the nonliving components of that system’ (Wilson, 2014), like climate, precipitation, temperature, terrain (including soil quality and mineral content), fires and availability of nutrients.

Biotic and abiotic factors interact and can influence each other.


Wilson, E.O. (2014) Life on Earth. Chapel Hill, United States: E.O.Wilson Biodiversity Foundation.