Forest and City

If the city is considered an ecosystem, then the city can be defined as (Odum, 1971): “A community of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components interacting through cycles of water, nutrients and energy flows.

Our approach assumes that the general laws of nature and their main driving mechanisms apply to all living ecosystems. As a consequence of considering the city as an ecosystem, the city fully obliges to and functions under the laws of nature.

In this ecosystem, organisations are considered organisms. They, like plants, fungi and animals live, feed and interact. From this standpoint, people like governors, managers and employees are considered part of the organisation.

To find the analogies we think we are best equipped to think from the natural forest ecosystem because it is – with the coral reefs – considered as the most complex system on earth. The developed methods and techniques for forest diagnosing are advanced and can be made applicable to the ecosystem city.


Odum, E. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology (Third Edition). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.