Four main Phases

The forest consists of four main phases divided within its overall mosaic: innovation, aggradation, biostatic, and degradation. They form a balancing act which makes the forest what it is. All phases play their part in the overall mosaic of the forest and must coexist (Oldeman, 1990).


Oldeman, R.A.A. (1990). Forests: Elements of Silvology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.