Local government is there for controlling the city. Working with advisers and strategists over the years and the experiences of city managers leads to the conclusion that – though there is one city – most of the local departments and aldermen have their own focus points and responsibilities.

This is driven by the fact that also higher governments show segmented approaches. Multi-level governance is a highly fragmented concept in daily practice. One city, 256 governments. Quite a picture.

In newly integrated approaches in strategy and policy, as related for example to city resilience, it is in the outlining of the governance something (segmentation and fragmentation) to be aware off and to submit it to redesign where possible.